Bali Tourism Directory-header APRIL 2020

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  • Gunung Agung Pesangkan Bali I Nengah Subadra
  • Purification of Barong at Masceti Beach, Gianyar Regency, Bali
  • Nusa Penida Island, the sister island of Bali
  • Tomato Farm nearby Batur Lake, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali
  • Mount Agung - the highest mountain in Bali, captured from Pesangkan Village, Karangasem Regency


The one who thought the establishment of Kahyangan Tiga in every Pakraman Village is Mpu Kuturan, in around the eleventh century. In that century the one who became the king in Bali was king Udayana who was accompanied by his empress from Java named Mahendra Datta with Gunapriya Dharma Patni title. Mpu Kuturan’s idea to establish Kahyangan Tiuga in every Pkaraman Village was estimated occurred when there was a big congregation in Samuan Tiga Temple which currently located in Bedahulu Village, Gianyar Regency.


There are various opinions regarding that great congregation. One stated that the congregation in Samuan Tiga was to unite Hindu sects which were divided at that time. But many archaeology professors stated that they did not find any proofs that contain historical value declaring that during that period of time Hindu’s sects were divided. King Udayana and his empress themselves were from different religious sects. King Udayana adhered Mahayana Buddhism. While his empress adhered Siwa Pasupata sect. That congregation seems was to establish a policy to improve Balinese spiritual power to develop physically and mentally prosperous life. Because of the establishment of Kahyang Tiga in every Pakraman Villages is to worship God in its manifestation as Tri Murti as stated in Pustaka Bhuana Kosa III 76.


God is the one that creates (srsti or utpati), protects (sthiti) and diminishes (pralaya or praline) all of His creation. God’s greatness to perform these Utpati, Sthiti and Pralina is called Tri Kona. By worshipping Siwa God as Tri Murti comprehend two concepts of spiritual life guidance. Which are Tri Kona and Tri Guna concepts.


In Bhagawata Purana it is stated three Maha Purana groups. There are Satvika Purana with its Ista Dewata Wisnu God. There is Rajasika Purana with Brahma God as its Ista Dewata and there is Tamasika Purana with Siwa God as its Ista Dewata. Therefore Tri Murti according to Bhagawata Purana is Brahma, Wisnu and Siwa as Guna Awatara. It means God is the highest controller of a human three basic characters which is called Tri Guna.


God worship as Tri Murti in every Pakraman villages in Bali as a sacred media to apply concept to strengthen spiritual life. The strengthen of spiritual life through strengthening of worship to God system so that people’s life is directed in navigating life’s dynamic in this world. To realize four life’s purposes in achieving Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha there are at least two life concepts that must be set as guidance to navigate life’s dynamic at Pakraman Village level.


Those two concepts are Tri Kona and Tri Guna. Those two spiritual concepts will guide people in Pakraman Village to realize four life purposes as being called as Catur Asrama. Tri Kona as God’s greatness is set as the highest guidance in doing those three life dynamics. Meaning human should make that Tri Kona concept as “guide line” in behaving. Creating (utpati), protecting (sthiti) and diminishing (pralina) to uphold a good, sacred and harmonious life (Satyam, Siwam and Sundharam). Life characteristic that is good and right is doing creativity to create something that should be created. This is what is called Utpati and Srsti.


Furthermore creative in maintaining something that should be maintained or Utpati. In this life there are things that should be eliminated so that this life dynamic rapid to Jana Hita and Jagat Hita life. Jana Hita means individual happiness and Jagat Hita is collective happiness. This is what should be improved by people in Pakraman Village. Conducting that Tri Kona teaching is not as simple as its theory. That is why in conducting creation effort to make that effort really useful in this life needs spiritual guidance by worshiping Bhatara Brahma in village’s Temple as Kahyangan Tiga’s element in Pakraman Village. As well to maintain and protect something good and right that should be protected is not easy. Doing this Sthiti’s effort also needs spiritual power by worshipping God as Bhatara Wisnu. In life there are many things that hinder life’s process towards Dharma. To eliminate something that should be eliminated also need a strong spiritual power. It is to strengthen the spiritual power to do Pralina that God is worshipped as Rudra or Bhatara Siwa.

Life’s dynamics with Tri Kona base is what creates a dynamic, harmonious and productive life in terms of continuous spiritual and material. From this Tri Kona concept that can actually develop into various policies in Pakraman Village. However advance an era is be assure that it can be controlled with Tri Kona concept. With this Tri Kona concept Pakraman Village will never lose its identity as typical Balinese Hindus. The advance of an era will strengthen life’s identity in Pakraman Village. That is why not to randomly uphold custom. Custom is man-made as a tool to apply a dogma. It is like a vehicle that has a limited time period.


There will be time when the tool is in a good condition because it is still new, there will be its old period and there will be its expire period. Creates custom that is needed by the era, there is a custom that is still good and right to be taken care and maintained. While custom that is already old should be left behind voluntarily. If there is a custom that is old because it is contradict with truth and humanity should be left behind with also the good and right ways.

God worship in Kahyangan Tiga Temple in Pakraman Village also guides three basic human nature which are called Tri Guna. If Tri Guna’s composition is not ideal then it is from Tri Guna itself will emerge characteristics that is not accordance with Dharma.


In Wrehaspati Tattwa 21 it is stated that Guna Satwam and Guna Rajah have an equal power in controlling a human’s mind therefore Guna Sattwam will encourage human to have the right and goodwill, while Guna Rajah encourages human to do that goodwill in the form of good deed. The equal power of Guna Sattwam and Guna Rajah will deliver Atman into heaven. If the three Guna are equal in controlling mind therefore Atman will go further to heaven. Thereby being explained in Wrehaspati Tattwa 22.


Tri Murti worship in Kahyangan Tiga as a media to practice the good and right of Hindu religious teachings. Ritual being done to implement spiritual value so that Hindu religious teachings is applied properly, correctly and precisely.

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